Pylorus ulceration in a horse.
The endoscopic images in the following figures are of a horse's pyloris. This is the portion of the stomach that creates a valve and allows gastric fluids and contents to enter the small intestines. The very first region of the small intestines is known as the duodenum. In Figure 1, the pyloric sphincter is open and a small amount of feed material is noted around the edges of the sphincter. In Figure 2, the pyloris is nearly completely closed. The movement of material through the pyloris is controlled via rhythmic contractions or peristalsis of the stomach's muscular wall.
In Figure 3-6, there are very important abnormalities noted around the pyloric sphincter. In Figure 3 and 4, there is evidence of active bleeding from ulcerations around the pyloric sphincter! These ulcerations are likely to be a source of significance discomfort in the horse and would contribute to signs of gastric ulcer disease. It is possible and common to examine a horse's stomach and miss these lesions if the horse is not properly fasted prior to the gastroscopy and the pyloric sphincter is not visualized. This can be quite difficult in some equine patients!! The pyloric sphincter essentially controls the rate of gastric emptying hence any inflammation in this area will likely SLOW the rate of gastric emptying and result in an abnormal build-up of gastric fluid/content within the stomach.
In Figures 5-6, there is a significant amount of hyperemia around the pyloric sphincter which corresponds to active inflammation. The degree of clinical signs may vary significantly from horse to horse however it is highly likely that horses with these types of lesions will have clinical signs consistent with gastric ulceration and WILL require the proper medical management! These type of lesions may be caused by excessive use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as banamine and phenylbutazone. Diagnosis is dependent on a COMPLETE gastroscopy and I typically recommend a follow-up gastroscopy after treatment to verify complete resolution of the pyloric sphincter ulcerations!!